Why does the machine replace labor?

The textile industry is a labor-intensive industry. With the gradual disappearance of China's demographic dividend, the transformation and upgrading cannot be delayed. Mechanization, automation and intelligence have become an effective way to transform traditional industries, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, reduce staff and increase efficiency, and ease the difficulty of recruiting workers. This has also opened the curtain of China's "machine substitution".

The plan has achieved remarkable results in the industry.

Zhejiang Province was the first province to implement the “machine substitution” program. At the beginning of 2013, the Zhejiang government launched a “four-change” project to fully implement the “cage change, machine substitution, space exchange, and e-commerce for city”. A new pattern of economic development. According to the Zhejiang Provincial Economic and Information Commission, the project has been launched for more than a year and has achieved great results.

First, it reduces the labor and production and operation costs. According to the survey, after the machine substitution, 61.5% of the enterprises reduced the number of front-line employees by more than 10%, and 68.9% of the enterprises reduced the production cost by more than 5%. Under the same conditions, the company's cost per liter is reduced by one percentage point. Profit increased by 1 percentage point.

Second, it has improved the efficiency of labor production. The labor productivity of the surveyed enterprises increased by more than 30% after “machine substitution”; 16.6% of the labor productivity increased by 20% to 30%; and 29% of the labor productivity increased by 10%~20 %.

Third, the product quality has been improved. Since machine operation has the precision and accuracy that manual operation is difficult to achieve, the role of “machine substitution” in improving the quality and quality of enterprise products is also very obvious. The survey shows that after nearly 98.3% of the company's machine substitutions, the quality of the products has improved to varying degrees. Fourth, reducing energy consumption. Among the surveyed companies, as high as 86.3% of the companies indicated that they had reduced energy consumption after the “machine substitution”.

The textile industry occupies an important position in this machine substitution. According to the Keqiao District Economic and Trade Bureau, from January to September this year, the 661 technical transformation projects in the district completed an investment of 24.063 billion yuan. Among them, the investment in textile projects was 15.342 billion yuan, accounting for 63%.

Lanxi City is a gathering area for weaving and characteristic industries. The production of denim is the first in the country. According to the status quo of yarn-dyed fabric production, the local machine-based “machine substitution” is launched in time. The main content is the introduction of wearing, piercing and knotting. After replacing the manual labor with the automation equipment, the enterprises listed in the “machine substitution” are encouraged to purchase automation equipment. The government gives certain subsidies, mainly through policy guidance, and encourages enterprises to replace manual labor with highly automated equipment. To achieve the purpose of "machine substitution". There are hundreds of weaving enterprises in Lanxi, and more than 70 enterprises (including 10 demonstration enterprises and 60 promotion enterprises) have been selected from the localities. First, the “machine substitution” project has been implemented. These projects require all the projects to start during the year. %, completed more than 90% of the investment plan for the year.

From the perspective of the transformation of the printing and dyeing industry, Shaoxing launched the “machine substitution” project. They carried out automated informationization transformation and “machine substitution” for the weak links of information and energy management in the printing and dyeing industry, and achieved relatively good results. .

Great lifting space, heavy resistance

The spinning process is complex and changeable. From cotton to yarn, it is necessary to go through many processes such as cleaning, combing, and coarse and fine. Continuity and intelligence have become the constant requirements of enterprise development. Although some achievements have been made, textile enterprises as a traditional industry still have a lot of room for improvement in terms of intelligence.

Taking the automatic doffer as an example, the relevant data shows that the enterprises that still use the artificial doffing method in China account for more than 97% of the total textile enterprises in the country, and the hand-push (or electric) oblique pull-off machine is used. The company is less than 1% of the national total and is basically on the verge of being eliminated. In Europe and the United States, the number of enterprises that automatically drop yarn to replace artificial doffing can reach more than 85%. According to this trend, the demand for automatic doffers in China is expected to appear "blowout" in the next few years.

Machine substitution has an incomparable advantage in replacing labor to improve productivity, but there are still many difficulties for the majority of textile enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. High cost, difficult financing, and the biggest obstacle to machine substitution.

According to a survey conducted by the Zhejiang Economic and Information Commission, about 71.1% of enterprises believe that the primary problem facing the current “machine substitution” is that the cost is too high. According to the survey of enterprises that have completed the “machine substitution”, more than half of the enterprises have invested more than 10 million yuan. This is not a small amount, and in recent years, factors such as rising corporate financing costs and difficulties in financing have made it difficult for companies to change their machines. Second, the investment in maintenance is also a big problem. Except for daily equipment maintenance costs, as well as maintenance personnel input. The general cultural and technical level of textile enterprise employees is relatively low, and the technical talents are seriously lacking. After the introduction of automation equipment, the demand for various technical talents will increase sharply. Textile enterprises need to carry out training or introduce high-level technical personnel, which is undoubtedly a big burden. Not only that, but the recycling period of capital investment is also longer. According to the survey, the proportion of enterprises that have completed the “machine substitution” transformation enterprise with a payback period of more than 4 years is as high as 36.8%.

In view of this, Hu Xudong, dean of the School of Mechanical Engineering of Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, believes that textile enterprises must not be in one step in order to adapt to local conditions. "Machine substitution" can be big or small. Generally speaking, the entire production line is transformed and the investment is relatively large, which is suitable for large enterprises to implement. However, small enterprises can also achieve the purpose of machine substitution through the automation transformation of one of the unit equipments. . Enterprises with weaker strengths can focus on some auxiliary types of work, such as knitting stitching, spinning and unwinding, weighing, packing, and transfer. These processes are not key jobs, but the number of workers is still large, and the process is relatively Simple, relatively easy to succeed; Secondly, some single-spindle transmission preparation equipment such as double-twisting, winding, rewinding, etc., using automation technology, design some self-stop devices, when the broken wire breaks or other faults, can be single spindle Automatic parking does not affect the production of the whole machine, and has little effect on productivity. This can realize the production of unmanned workshops, or just regular inspections and save labor.

Challenge opportunities and coexist with technical services

Textile machinery companies are facing the arrival of the machine replacement boom, there are opportunities and many challenges. Hu Xudong said that at present, the textile machinery is in a relatively low state. Machine substitution may be an opportunity for some enterprises. Through the improvement of equipment automation and intelligence level, it can solve the difficult situation of recruitment in the textile industry, which can be in the current downturn. Go out of the way. However, the digitalization and intelligent improvement of equipment is more difficult. It is not like the past technological transformation, it can be copied or commissioned. It requires enterprises to cooperate more with universities and automation equipment research units, from the process flow to The overall integration process is fully integrated, so it is more challenging. In the face of such a situation, what preparations should textile machinery enterprises make?

First, continue to innovate and implement differentiated strategies. Technological innovation is the core competitiveness of an enterprise. Constantly optimizing the differentiation of its products through technological innovation is the ability that is urgently needed during the period of deep adjustment and transformation. For example, in the robot-to-eye stitching system recently introduced by Cixing, the sewing of the sweaters is a very large process in the sweater industry, and the requirements for the age, vision and physical strength of the workers are relatively high. Cixing Company first selected a breakthrough in this process, which can greatly reduce the number of workers and has broad application prospects.

Second, strengthen service awareness. The manufacturing industry is gradually moving towards private customization. Even in the same industry, the situation of enterprises is very different and the demand is different. In this process, textile machinery enterprises not only supply equipment, but also provide updated service models or borrow long-term accumulated experience to become the best consultants for textile enterprises. For example, Jingwei shares promoted the nanny service mode of the whole company by the manufacturer's professional textile company, and gradually gained customer recognition. Or, in response to the new requirements imposed on the frontline workers after the implementation of “machine substitution”, the textile enterprises will be trained to train a group of operators and equipment maintenance personnel who are proficient in new technologies, new processes and new equipment.

At the same time, we must continuously improve the overall quality of after-sales service personnel. The overall quality of the employee reflects the culture of a company and represents the image of a company. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly conduct training and assessment on the professional knowledge, standard operation, communication and communication skills of the personnel in the after-sales service department.

Third, strengthen technical alliances. Technology alliances are often an important way for many of the world's manufacturing powers to form and remain competitive. Due to the lack of factors such as capital and scientific research capabilities, a single enterprise often cannot form an effective breakthrough in technology, and the technology alliance has greatly increased this possibility. In 2011, the wire ring technology innovation alliance composed of several domestic wire ring manufacturers and the State Key Laboratory of Tribology of Tsinghua University jointly developed, so that the technical content and performance of the products were greatly improved, and the product price was also improved. It can be seen that the alliance between universities, universities, research institutes and universities or enterprises is an effective means to improve the technical level.

Fourth, enhance the awareness of intellectual property protection. From the current situation of the industry, enterprises have not formed a sense of protection of intellectual property rights, and the problem is more prominent. This creates conditions for speculators and unscrupulous people, so differentiated products are not differentiated and will soon be replicated. Therefore, companies must strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights such as patents and proprietary technologies.

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